Water Bound Macadam (WBM) is defined as a dense and compact course of road pavement, composed of stone aggregates held together by a film which consists of gravel or screenings with a minimum amount of water.

        The pavement base course made up of crushed or broken aggregate is mechanically interlocked by rolling and voids filled by screening and binding material with the assistance of water.

Water Bound macadam is also called Water Bound Macadam(W.B.M) street. These streets are made since awfully old days. The streets having its conveying surface comprising of unpolluted, squashed totals, consequently interlocked by rolling and bound close by a filler material and water, masterminded on a prepared base course is named Water Bound Macadam(W.B.M) street. This can be made as a town street. It is a base for hydrocarbon streets. 

wbm road

Construction Procedure of WBM:

1. At first, prepare the foundation for receiving the WBM course. 

2. Lateral confinement may be done by compacting the shoulder to advance, to a thickness equal to that of the compacted WBM layer and by trimming the inner side vertically.

3.Spreading of coarse aggregate

4. Compaction of coarse aggregate is done by wheeled power roller of capacity 6 to 10 tonnes or alternately by an equivalent vibratory roller.

5. Dry screening is applied gradually over the surface.

6. Water is sprinkled over the road and then swept and rolled.

7. Binding material is applied at a uniform and slow rate at multiple layers.

8.WBM Coarse is allowed to set overnight.

The material used in WBM roads:


For WBM development we utilize three materials:

# Binder

# Screeners

# Aggregate


We utilize the totals of various evaluations. IRC(Indian Roads Congress) has ordered the coarse totals into 9 levels, as indicated by their size.

For the development of the WBM streets, totals are utilized in the sub-base, base and surface course thus the totals are separated into 3 levels as indicated by their size.

Evaluation 1 – particles of size 90 mm to 40 mm.

Evaluation 2 – particles of size 63 to 40 mm.

Evaluation 3 – particles of size 50 to 20 mm.

The evaluation 1 totals having the size of 90 mm to 40 mm are favoured for the sub-base material and grade 2 for the base and grade 1 for the surface course. Be that as it may, on the off chance that we just utilize the WBM as the surface course, it gets crumbled quickly because of the scraped spot with the traffic in this way, bituminous surfacing over the WBM is general practice.

Screeners are the totals of the little sizes, for the most part, 12.5 mm or 10 mm, for evaluation A and grade B. They are of a similar concoction piece as of the coarse totals.

For monetary contemplations, IRC has proposed non-plastic materials, for example, squashed over consumed blocks, secured, rock, and so on gave the fluid furthest reaches of the material is under 20%, versatility file is under 6.0% and the bit of fines passing 0.075 mm strainer is under 10%.

Nonetheless, if the squash capable sort of totals is utilized, utilization of the screeners might be discarded off.

3) Binder: 
Binders are the layers of materials which are laid after the compaction of the totals and the screening materials one after the another. Kankar residue or limestone residue might be used if locally accessible.

The coupling material with a pliancy file estimation of 4% to 9% is utilized in surface course development; the versatility file of restricting course material ought to be under 6% on account of the WBM layers utilized as a base course or sub-base course, with the bituminous surfacing.

In any case, if the screening utilized are of crushable material like moored or delicate rock, there is no compelling reason to apply restricting material, except if the pliancy record worth is low.

 Favourable position of W.B.M:

1) WBM is prevalent in quality because of the materials that are thoroughly positioned and along these lines the resulting mass is about void less compacted mass.

2) The interlocking of blend particles bestows satisfactory quality of the materials chose for filling the voids. This certification non-passage of the plastic materials of the sub-grade into the voids.

3) Water sure macadam is a littler sum costly when contrasted with hydrocarbon base course.

 Weakness OF WBM roads:

1) The stone things used in WBM street ar keyed along using sand and dirt and the same establishing material is utilized. The coupling impacts of sand and mud depend upon the weight and wet.

2) When a quick-moving vehicle disregards a W.B.M street, the suspension of sand and dirt is sucked out by gas wheel tires, the stone things get bothered and finally, the cleared surface is deteriorated. because of this, the W.B.M streets aren’t fitting for quick moving vehicles with gas wheels.

3) These streets are exclusively fitting for moving iron wheeled traffic like ton gas, bullock trucks, and so forth.

4) Constant utilization of the street by iron wheels, the street mental gets squashed. Thinking about these elements, it ought to be induced that a W.B.M street endures only for a limited timeframe.

The development of W.B.M streets is finished inside the accompanying stages:


1) The readiness of Sub-grade: 

In the wake of completing the defence in hill and cutting, the arrangement level is prepared. The sub-level is generally inside the sort of a channel a thickness satisfactory the thickness of completed asphalt. The sub-level is prepared in accordance with the chamber and level of the street. it’s at that point completely compacted with a vehicle of weight not however eight tones. Prior to moving, water is wet on the sub-grade. 

                                    Any low pot, whenever created all through moving should be rectified and along these lines, the surface dropped at the predefined grade. In the event that the dirt is clayey, a layer of granular material like common sand, grieve, rock, educated or Kantar should unfurl with ten to fifteen cm thickness. stuff Sir Hans Adolf Krebs out and about edge of fifteen cm profundity is made to convey the street materials inside the right position.

2) The readiness of the base Course of Foundation:

This comprises of twelve to eighteen cm size rocks or broken things of stones, over consumed blocks, or block soling. Care should be taken to remain least potential voids close by pressing of stones. Voids are loaded down with little things of stones. The broadness of this course is solid sixty cm more extensive than the asphalt expansiveness of the street. The surface is then compacted with ten tones roller in light of the fact that the base course is masterminded with stones.

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