A road is a route, or long way on land between two places that has been paved which to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a cart, vehicle, bicycle. A road is a long way of paved ground which is built between two places which help people to drive or ride easily from one place to another.
Road transportation is an important network for any nation. Classification of roads depends on many factors such as materials, locations, traffic, etc. are explained.
Classification/Types of Roads:
The roads are classified depending on many factors:
- Location & function
- Traffic volume
- Traffic type
Types of Roads depend on Materials:
- Earthen roads
- Gravel roads
- Murrum roads
- Kankar roads
- WBM roads
- Bituminous roads
- Concrete roads
Earthen roads are put down gently with soil. They are less expensive of all types of roads. This type of road is constructed in fewer traffic areas and or for the countryside. The good drainage system should be needed which reflects high performance for a longer period.
Gravel roads are low-quality roads but they are best when compared to earthen roads. The compacted mixture of gravel and earth is utilized as pavement material on this road.
Murrum is a matter obtained by losing cohesion of igneous rocks by weathering agencies. This is used to make low cheapest roads called murrum roads.
Kankar is an impure form of limestone. Kankar roads are constructed where lime is easily available in more quantity. These are also low quality and performance wise they are the same to gravel and murrum roads.
Water Bound Macadam (WBM) roads hold smashed stone aggregate in its base course. The aggregates are transfer on the surface and these are rolled out after applying sprinkle of water.
WBM roads gives better performance compared to earthen, gravel, murrum and kankar roads.
WBM roads are placed as layers about 1mm thickness of each layer. They are very rough and may losses cohesion immediately under traffic moves on.
Bituminous roads are popular roads around the whole world. They are the most commonly used roads in the world. They are cheap in cost and best for driving conditions. They are more flexible and thickness of bituminous roads depends upon the subgrade soils.
Cement concrete is used to construct the pavements in case of concrete roads. These are very famous and low cost than all other types of roads. They are not more flexible so, they require less maintenance from time to time.
Concrete roads are best for high traffic areas. Concrete roads are placed with joints and the time of construction required is more.
Types of Roads depend on Traffic Volume
- Light traffic roads
- Medium traffic roads
- High traffic roads
Light Traffic Roads
The roads which can carry 400 vehicles daily on an average is called light traffic roads.
Medium Traffic Roads
The roads which can carry 400 to 1000 vehicles per day then it is called to be a medium traffic road.
High Traffic Roads
The roads which can carry more than 1000 vehicles per day then it is considered as high traffic roads.
Types of Roads depend on Economy
- Low-cost roads
- Medium cost roads
- High-cost roads
The economy depends upon the location and function of roads and also on the traffic analysis.
Types of Roads depend on Traffic Type
- Pedestrian ways
- Cycle tracks
Types of Roads Based on Rigidity
- Flexible roads
- Rigid roads
Flexible roads consist of a flexible layer as a pavement surface which requires good maintenance time to otherwise it can lose cohesion easily with heavy traffic. Except for concrete roads, all other types come under this category.
Rigid pavements are non-flexible and cement concrete roads come under this category.
Types of Roads depend on Topography
- Plain area road
- Hilly area roads
Types of Roads depend on Location and Function
- National highways
- State highways
- District roads
- Rural roads or village roads