Retaining Walls

1.1:-Introduction

            A retaining wall is a wall constructed for the purpose of retaining vertical or nearly vertical bank or slope. The retaining wall is the most important structure in hill road construction. It provides sufficient stability to the roadway and to the slope at hillside as well as the valley side. The retaining walls provided at the valley side is called the toe wall and provided at the hillside is called the breast wall.

1.2:-Function of retaining walls

1)Retained soil or other materials at the location having an abrupt change in elevation.

2)Break the steepness of the slope.

3)Provide stability to the slope at the valley side as well as hillside and retained backfill.

1.3:-Type of retaining walls

A)Based on structure

1)Gravity retaining wall

2)Semi gravity retaining wall

3)Cantilever retaining wall

4)Counterfort retaining wall

1)Gravity retaining wall

-It depends upon their weight for stability.

-Construction of plane concrete or masonry

-Not  economical for greater height

-Take a large space

2)Semi gravity retaining wall

The size of the section of the gravity wall is reduced by the provision of a small amount of reinforcement.

3)Cantilever retaining wall

Made up of reinforced cement concrete.

-Consists of thin stem and base cast monolithically.

-Economical up to the height of 6-8 meter

4)Counterfort retaining wall

-It has a thin vertical slab called counterfort.

-The counterfort ties the vertical stem with the base slab.

-Counterfort is on the side of backfill.

-They are economical for height more than 6 meter

B)Classification based on material 

1)Dry stone masonry

2)Stone filled gabion wire crates

3)Stonemasonry with cement sand mortar

4)Composed retaining wall

5)PCC retaining wall

6)RCC retaining wall

C)Classification based on location

1)Hill or valley side retaining wall

2)Cut off wall

3)Revetment wall/ breast wall

4)Toe wall

1.4:-Suitable site for retaining walls

1)At the place of partly cutting or partly filling of hill section.

2)At the place where the road crosses a drain.

3)At a valley side and hillside of the roadway.

4)At the toe of an embankment.

5)At the base of the cut slope.

1.5:-Practical features of retaining walls

1)The retaining wall of height less than 6 meters has a minimum base width of 0.5 H and top width 0.45 to 0.6 meter.

2)The rare side of retaining wall is vertical, while the front is batter of 1 in 4 (1:4).

3)In the case of height greater than 6 meters, the base width is (0.4+0.3) to (0.5+0.6)meter with top width o 0.75 meters.

4)The rear face is kept vertical while the front face is batter of 1:2.5 to 1:4.

5)In the case of the dry retaining wall of height greater than 6 m of the band of cement mortar at the horizontal and vertical interval of about 3 meters, each is constructed.

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