In underdeveloped countries, a large portion of the population is depended on untreated water for drinking purposes. Every year about 30 millions peoples die in the world because of sanitation problems. Studies have shown that improving the quality of water supplying and sanitation reduces the mortality rate. Typhoid, Cholera and malaria are the most common water-related diseases but they lead to most deaths in the world.
Water-related diseases are classified into four types. They are:
Types of Diseases
1. Water-Borne Diseases
The diseases caused due to the consumption of the drinking water contaminated by the human or animal excrete which contain pathogenic micro-organisms are known as water borne diseases.
They are – Cholera, Typhoid, Dysentry, etc.
2. Water-Based Diseases
These diseases are caused due to the contact with dirty water transmitted through aquatic animals(i.e. fishes) and caused by aquatic organisms that spread a part of their life cycle in water. They are guinea, worm, snail, schistosomiasis, etc.
3. Water Vector Diseases
These diseases are transmitted through the biting of mosquitoes. Vector like mosquitoes transfer parasites( virus, bacteria, protozoa, worms, etc) in the human body. Some diseases of this group are malaria, yellow fever, dengue, etc.
4. Water Washed Diseases
The diseases that are caused due to the lack of personal hygiene. When there is the scarcity of fresh and good water for washing hands or body; infection diseases are transmitted. These diseases are scabies, trachoma( eye inflammation), leprosy fungal infection, etc.
1. Drink properly treated water. There are many ways of water treating like the boiling of water, chlorination, Bromine treatment, silver treatment, filtration, ozone treatment, iodine treatment, etc.
2. Take care of personal hygiene. Using bad water to clean body and washing hands leads to more serious problems. So, good water is required for both consumption and external use also.
3. Managing and maintaining good environment to reduce pollution and water-related diseases.