The process of maintaining and keeping roadway, shoulder, laneway, structures as much as possible in its existing condition as constructed or as subsequently improved and the operation of highway facilities and services to give acceptable and safe transportation, is called maintenance of Highways.
Factor Affecting Road Maintenance:
Usually, the following factors affect the maintenance of pavements.
Increase in the intensity of traffic.
Since we know that there is an increase in road transport per year about 8%. Hence this is the most major factor, which influences the maintenance of roads.
Inadequate Thickness of Pavement.
As before talk about the adequate thickness of pavement is important. If the adequate thickness is not provided, it will result in frequent pavement failure, unevenness, and heavy patches.
Types of Highway Maintenance
Generally, the following type of maintenance operations are as follows:
Routine or periodic maintenance.
Since all types of the highway are exposed to the adverse climate condition and moving traffic, they would positively wear out. Thus for the economy, they need maintenance before further deterioration. Under this category of maintenance generally, the following works are carried out.
- Upkeep of carriageway.
- maintenance of side drains as glade of silt and keep proper slope.
- Maintain of shoulders and subgrade.
- Of other ancillary work such as bridge etc.
- Improvement of highway geometric and traffic controls etc.
Special repairs are brought about for unique problems and when they occur due to the non-success of pavements. Sometimes repairs are required for any subsurface drainage system and cross structures.
- An adequate drainage system should be provided that has a design flaw that could last for the lifetime of the project. On the Ring Road, there is no such provision, which at times, cause the water table to rise up and affect the pavement foundations. Also, the area comprises of field and croplands, so the water input is more which needs to be removed, otherwise it will be a danger to the subgrade.
- Proper sloping should be kept on the road surface in order to remove the rainwater smoothly.
- He material of use should be in the nearby of the project area so that there should be no delay in the construction period.
- To make sure that the material reaches to the site in the time when needed and neither earlier nor later than that.
- In the case of asphalting, the temperature at the time of the laying of material should be within limits and according to the standards.
- The pavement should be prepared in line with maximal expected axle loading in some region and not more than that load should be permitted to pass over it.
- Grade of bitumen is the most important thing to be noticed. Proper grading benchmark should be acquired in accordance with the climate conditions, so the selection of the proper grade of bitumen is a big problem.
- Continuously driving on the same lane should be avoided in order to prevent rutting failure.
- Proper compaction should be done to get success in the highway design.
- If the soil does not have sufficient strength, it should be upgraded by adding some reagents. Also if required, soil can be, bring in from other places.