Let’s introduce earthquake here, Earthquake is the tremble or quake which is the outcome of sudden energy release in the earth’s crust due to various factors that create seismic waves. And the seismic activity of earthquake can be measured by a seismograph and it’s magnitude on the Richter scale.
Some of the terminologies used:–
The point at which seismic waves start or the initial point of the earthquake is known as hypocenter and the point at the ground level of the earth directly above the hypocenter is called epicentre.
There are four different types of earthquakes
Tectonic, volcanic, collapse and explosion. As Nepal is a landlocked and mountainous country mainly, a tectonic earthquake can be observed from the history of earthquake in Nepal. The tectonic earthquake occurred due to the movement of tectonic plates beneath the earth’s crust which resulted as rupture of earth’s crust on various physical and chemical changes.
Here, we are going to study the history of the earthquake in Nepal and most recent earthquake that occurred in 2015 A.D.
History of Earthquake in Nepal
Based on the seismograph, seismic record in Nepal it is observed that once every 80 years earthquake of magnitude greater than 8 Richter had occurred. The list earthquakes occurred in the history of Nepal are as below with the help of information using various references from google; source
Date place deaths magnitude
1255, 7 June Kathmandu 2,200 7.8
1260 Sagarmatha 100 7.1
1344 Mechi 100 7.9
1408, August Bagmati Zone 2,500 8.2
1505, 6 June Nepal-Tibet Border 6,000 8.7
1681, January Karnali Zone 4,500 8.0
1767, July Northern Koshi Zone 4000 7.9
1863, 26 August Kathmandu 6,500 8.0
1869, 7 July Kathmandu 750 6.5
1916, 28 August Nepal-Tibet 3,500 7.7
Border (at 06:39)
1934, 15 January Nepal-Bihar 8,519 8.0
earthquake( at 08:43)
1966, 27 June Nepal-India 80 6.3
1980, 29 July Nepal- 200 6.5
Pithoragarh (at 14:58)
1988, 20 August Kathmandu 1091 6.6
2011, 18 September Sikkim 111 6.9
2015, 25 April Gorkha, 8,922 7.8
2015, 12 May Sindhupalchowk 213 7.3
According to above data, we can observe that the worst earthquake to strike Nepal since 1934, 15 June Nepal-Bihar earthquake recently occurred earthquake on 25th April 2015 which is also known as”Gorkha Earthquake” killed nearly 9,000 people an nearly 22,000 were injured. The epicentre of Gorkha earthquake was east of Gorkha District at Barpak occurred at 11:56:26 (according to Nepal Standard Time) with a magnitude of 7.8 Richter. Its hypocenter was at a depth of approximately 8.2 KM from the epicentre. And on 12th May 2015 at 12:38 there was next strike with 7.3 Richter with epicentre Sindhupalchowk which killed 213 people.
This 2015 earthquake destroyed nearly 604,930 houses completely and 288,856 houses were partially destroyed and it causes great destruction of nature and monuments too. The earthquake caused an avalanche on Mount Everest killed 21 people and on Langtang valley with 250 people missing. It causes landslides, soil erosion, etc. at many places. The 2015 Nepal earthquake cause change in the position of the India tectonic plates north at about 45 mm a year is pushing under the Eurasian plate beneath the Himalayas plates meet beneath the Himalayas along a fault line.
The 25th April 2015 was the deadliest day for Nepal which causes significant loss of lives, property and nature too. Thousands of Nepalese became homeless and many cultural heritages and monuments destroyed which were the real properties of Nepal and Nepal’s great history reflection.
Many monuments and Temples which had enlisted in the World Heritage Site in UNESCO located in Kathmandu like The Kathmandu Durbar Square, the Patan Durbar Square, The Bhaktapur Durbar Square, The Changu Narayan Temple, The Boudhanath Stupa, etc. These were the architecture of Kathmandu recognized by UNESCO. Literally, Durbar Square means”Place of Palaces“.The above Durbar Square is the only live evidence of Nepal’s old Malla and Shah’s Kings of the 15th century.
Although these cultural heritage sites are re-constructed but they lost their real identity like Dharahara which was of 18 floors after two strikes of the earthquake, it was totally destroyed and now it is re-constructed using today’s materials.
United States, India, China, Japan and many other countries gave financial support, sent volunteers, tents, health services, rescue soldiers, etc. to the victims and Nepal Government also managed volunteers and many other facilities. To re-construct the houses for homeless people many foreign countries gave a donation but Nepal Government is still unsuccessful to construct well houses for them. Many campaigns and programs were launched and millions of dollars has been raised for the shake of earthquake victims to manage the condition of earthquake affected areas and Nepalese but it is still in the process.