Risk & safety in Civil Engineering

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SNNature of workType of mortar
1.Exposed and water logged areasCement or lime mortar of 1:3
2.Damp proof courses and cement concrete roadsCement mortar of 1:2
3.For RCC works like staris, slab, pillar, lintels,etc.Cement mortar of 1:3, the concrete mix of 1:2:4
4.For internal and less important work.Lime cinder mortar of 1:3, cinder or ashes is used in place of sand.
5.For Fire Bricks1:2 ratio of aluminous and crushed fine powder of fire bricks
6.For Parapet & Partition wallCement mortar of 1:3 or Lime mortar of 1:1
7.Plastering workCement mortar of 1:3 to 1:4 or lime mortar of 1:2
8.Pointing workCement mortar of 1:1 to 1:2
9.Reinforced brickworkCement mortar of 1:3
10.Stone masonry with best quality stonesLime mortar of 1:2, eminently hydraulic lime.
11.Stone masonry with simple or ordinary stones, bricks,etcLime mortar of 1:2 or cement mortar of 1:6, eminently hydraulic lime.
12.For brickwork with thin jointsLime mortar of 1:3, fat lime is used.
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4.2 BEAMS *

A beam is a structural element which has one dimension (length) considerably larger than the other two dimensions in the cross section and is supported at a few points.

* Types of supports:

Simple supports, roller supports—hinged support and fixed support Types of Beams:

1. Determinate Beams: cantilever, simply supported, one end hinged and other on the roller, overhanging

2. Indeterminate Beams: both ends hinged, propped cantilever, continuous. Statically determinate beams are the beams, in which all reaction components at supports can be found using the equations of equilibrium only. *

Types of Loadings: Concentrated load, uniformly distributed load (UDL), uniformly varying load (UVL) general loading, external moments. Analysis of Pin-Jointed Plane Frames

* A pin-jointed frame is a structure made of slender members pin connected at ends and capable of taking loads at joints. *

A perfect frame is the one which retains its shape with a minimum number of members and can carry loads applied at joints. *

A frame is said to be deficient if the number of members in it is less than that required for a perfect frame. *

The assumptions made in the analysis of pin-jointed frames are:

1. The ends of the members are pin-connected.

2. The loads act at joints only.

3. Self-weight is negligible.

4. If there are a number of members along a line of truss, they are located along the same longitudinal line.

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