Building substructure is the lower part of a structural system which is constructed beneath the ground level so, hidden from view. It transfers loads of the structural system i.e building, bridge, etc. to the ground which has the load-bearing capacity. It supports and anchors the superstructure in a safe manner. It should be designed with the proper technique because it assures the stability of superstructure too. Example:- the multistory structure has basement parking which is kind of substructure.
Components of Building Substructure
Building Substructure has the following two components :
The structure just below the ground level with some extent depth which is directly contacted with superstructure is known as “Foundation”.It transfers dead loads, live loads and all other loads which are exerting on it to the soil with load-bearing capacity. As stability of building depends upon the strength of the foundation, it should be made more reliable and strong.
Types of Foundation
It is the type of Foundation which is placed near the earth’s surface that transfers the loads to the soil at shallow depth. It is categorized into four types. They are explained below:-
a.Strip foundation(Strip Footings)
It is the foundation that supports the linear structure such as walls, columns which are constructed above it from the centre. It depends on the soil load-bearing capacity. The size and position of this Foundation depends on the width of linear structures.
This is the kinda Foundation made up of a large concrete slab that can support the loads exerted by walls, columns constructed over it. It is spread all over under the building to reduce contact stress or pressure.
It is constructed beneath the column to distribute the concentrated loads safely to bed soil. It supports only for single columns.
This kind of footings is built for supporting two or more columns in a straight line where soil bearing capacity is least that cause overlap between adjacent isolated footings.
Example:-Strap footings (cantilever) is the independent footings of two columns connected by beams.
This kinda Foundation is placed at great depth from surface level to transfer the load to the deep layers of soil beneath it. Such type of foundation can mainly be made out of steel, timber, reinforced concrete or pre-stressed concrete.
For example; a good foundation which is made below the water level mostly for bridges.
Types of Deep Foundation
A long cylindrical foundation which is analogous to a pole is said to be pile foundation. Such kind of foundation can be made of strong materials such as concrete, steel, timber, etc. so that it hardens the strata and transfers the heavy loads from superstructure below the ground level. It increases the effective size of a foundation and the resisting loads which are horizontally kept since, pile foundation is considered as more compact, less compressible and stiffer soil or rock at the depth.
Most of the foundations are depending on their instalment methods. Pier foundation is the dissolved form of pile foundation. Its caissons are the watertight structures which are made up of steel, wood or reinforced concrete built above the ground level and the sunken into the ground. This foundation can be constructed for the collection of a large number of columns, for repairing the ships and for the construction of the concrete dam as well.
There are drilled shafts, those are the caissons or bored piles. They support structure with large axial lateral loads simply by excavating the cylindrical shafts into the ground just to fill them all into the concrete.
This is a reinforced concrete beam which is in framed and structured form constructed between the wall and its the foundation. When the foundation suffers from the settlement, it is provided in such a way to prevent the extension or the propagation of cracks from its foundation into the wall above. Plinth beam is generally constructed in such areas which are prone to earthquake. It is effective to be used as it reduces the length of columns by reducing their slenderness, constructing as plinth line at the base of a column, statue, pedestal or the pier. Here’s something that needs to be noted, the strength of this plinth beam shouldn’t be smaller than 20 MPa. And the minimum dimension of the plinth beam is about 20 cm depth having with the matching width of the foundation. In order to prevent steel base from aggressive elements, the formwork for it has to be compacted sufficiently.