Construction management

It is very necessary for construction management to control the money flow and to construct any structure under budget. There are three types of construction management:

  1. Organization
  2. Site Management
  3. Contract Procedure

1)Organization in construction management

      Organization is defined as a group of people put together to get the things done in a systematic way. An organization can be seen as a set of roles or positions rather than the collection of people. The posts or roles are arranged in a hierarchy.

1.1: Need for organization

1)To arrange the right people in the right position at the right time.

2)Organization facilitates in meeting management objectives.

3)Coordination Action for the achievements of the goal.

4)To explain the responsibility of workers.

5)To prompt decision.

6)Ensures continuity of work eliminates idle time and avoids friction between the staffs.

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1.2: Types of Organization

          Depending upon the size of organization and the pattern of the duties and responsibilities allocated with the organizational structure, organization, mainly used in the construction industry, can be divided into the following categories:-

a)line or military organization

           The line organization, which is simple and the earliest one. It is also called the military organization. In this type of organization the authority flows directly from the head of the organization to the bottom step by step and the officials who are at the top make all the major decisions.

b)Line and staff organization

            The line organization fails to handle large and complicated construction works, because of its simplicity and also it lacks experts. In order to execute such large and complicated projects, the staffs of the line organization need to be advised by the specialists to solve the various operating problems.

c)Functional organization

             The line type organization is unable to provide expert (specialist) service. This lacking of line organization has been fulfilled by the line and staff organization. But the “staffs” in the line and staff organization may remain ineffective due to lack of authority. A functional organization is the improved one among them. It is introduced by F.W. Taylor.

1.3: Responsibilities of civil overseer in construction management

            We know, overseers are playing the role of the supervisor in construction works. Overseers act as a bridge between engineers and labours. As a supervisor (or overseer) bears certain responsibilities which are listed below:-

a)To understand the duties and responsibilities of his own position.

b)To plan the execution of the work.

c)To divide the work among the worker and to direct and assets them in doing it.

d)To improve work methods and procedures.

e)To teach the subordinates.

Earthquake proof buildings- construction management

1.4: Relation between the owner, contractor and engineer

           Owner, contractor and engineer are the three parties involved in construction work. Owner contracts the work, contractors execute the work and the engineer by the owner provides advice and prepare all the necessary drawings, estimates, specification required and also helps in contracting procedures.

            Relations among owner, contractor and engineer depend on the nature of the work. They are supposed to perform. The owner gets the assurance of the work progress and the quality of the engineer. Contractors always try to satisfy the engineer, since he is the legal representative of the owner holding powerful authority. Thus, a relation of supervisory nature is to be maintained there by the engineer. He has to act as a supervisor.

2)Site Management in construction management

2.1: Preparation of site plan 

         Before starting any construction project, preparation of the site is essential. Preparation of site includes clearance of project area, construction of access road, labour quarter, storeroom, technical office, administrative office etc.

Construction management

2.2: Organizing labour

         It is the main element that plays a vital role to complete any construction work. so the proper management of labours before starting the project is most important.

2.3: Measures to improve labour efficiency

           All organized effort is done to achieve goals, in our purpose the goal is to execute any construction works. Though the goal of construction is primary, the person involved in the construction also has their own need and goals which are important to them. Several models have been developed in order to understand the complexity of people. However, the efficiency of labour depends upon the skill, knowledge, experience as well as willingness to work. It also depends on:- 

 a)Wages

b)Working condition of the site

c)Working hours

d)Rewards and punishment system

e)Employers behaviour

f)Tools and equipment introduced

g)The job of desired nature

2.4: Accident prevention

           The accident is an event that happens all of a sudden, unexpectedly e.g. hitting by falling from a height, collapse of deep foundation sites etc.

            Safety is the most important thing to be considered in the construction business. Unsafe working conditions not only cause minor accident or injuries but it may also cause the death of workers involved in construction. No compensation can provide a life for a dead person. The main causes of accidents may be broadly divided into:-

a)Physical causes

b)Physiological cause and

c)Psychological causes

       Following are the measures to prevent the accident:-

a)Protective hard hat (helmet)

b)Protective footwear

c)Protective hearing device

d)Barricades

e)Gloves, masks and goggles

f)Signals etc

 

3)Contract Procedure in construction management

3.1: Contracts

        The contract is defined as an argument enforceable by law. It is also defined as the agreement between two or more than two parties to do or not to do any business. It is now obvious that the contract involves a proposal from one party and an acceptance of the same by the other.

3.2: Departmental works and day works

         If the work is executed directly by the department or owner, all the required men, materials, the department manages tools and equipment etc. In short, the department shall handle all the administration and management for the successful completion of works. This procedure of executing construction work is followed if:-

a)The work is of regular maintenance and repair type.

b)The work is of smaller size and the expenses are minimum.

c)Government rules and regulations permit.

d)The work is of special nature.

e)This is of exceptional type.

Construction management

     Day work is used to denote a procedure of costing an item work on the basis of actual labourers and materials required. Certain item work on the basis of actual labourers and materials required. Certain item of work that cannot be measured as a design in the plasterwork, the front architectural finish of a building, work underwater etc. are valued and paid by “day work”. The “day work” prices usually include material, labour, transport, contractors profit and overhead charges, tools and plants etc.

3.3: Types of contract

           Construction work can be executed through the following contract procedures:-

a)Lump-sum contract

b)Item rate contract

c)Cost-plus contract 

d)Target contract

e)All in contract

f)Labour contract

g)Material contract

3.4: Tender and tender notices

            Usually, the construction of large and complicated projects, where the cost of construction will be high is not subjected to be executed by the department, directly. Government’s rule and regulation will limit the execution of such type of work by department. Execution of such type of work by contracting and for this tenders are called.

             Tender is a written presented before the owner or department in order to perform the specified works within a specified time under the agreed obligations.

            Tender notice is a means of expression, through which contractors may know where they have to bid a tender. Tender notice shall be published in such a way that all the concerning parties get the information in time. Thus, such tender notice shall be published in widely read newspapers or through other media from where the notification reaches the concerned parties. A tender notice shall contain the following information:-

a)Date, time and place of tender

b)Name of the authorities inviting tender

c)Nature of work and its location

d)Time of completion

e)Validity of tender

f)Amount of earnest and security money

g)Cost of the complete set of tender forms and conditions.

h)Estimated cost etc

3.5: Earnest money and security money

          Earnest money provides a guarantee of the party’s willingness to carrying out the work if he is awarded. This money is deposited while bidding a tender. 2.5% of the estimated amount or bidding amount (normally bidding amount) is demanded as earnest money. The earnest money deposited will be returned to the unsuccessful bidders. In the case of the successful bidder, the earnest 2.5% is turned to the security deposit with the addition of other 2.5%.

       On the acceptance of the tender, the contractor should deposit 5% of the tendered amount as security money with the department which is inclusive of the earnest money already deposited. It is also known as a security deposit. The amount is kept as a check so that the contractor fulfils all the terms and conditions of the contract and carries out the work satisfactorily according to the maintain progress and specifications and completes the work in time.

3.6: Preparation before inviting tender and agreement

             In order to execute construction work through contracting, we need to invite tenders from the eligible parties. Before inviting tender following steps are to be followed:-

1)Project formulation

2)Detail design and const estimation

3)Approval of cost estimation

4)Tender documentation

5)Tender invitation

     

        The agreement is a consensus between the successful bidder and the owner and it has a legal meaning. Agreement between the two parties should have the same spirit and understood in the same way.

3.7: Conditions of contract

            Construction involves owner, contractor and consultants. Thus in the agreement, there must be clauses or conditions which shall define the duties and responsibilities of the owner, contractor and consultant.

           Condition of the contract should be compared with the comparable standard form. The classes should not be ambiguous and incomplete. Here primary clauses of contract are given form the aspects of civil engineering contract procedure:-

a)Duties and power of site representative.

b)Definition of contract documents

c)Watching and lighting

d)Insurances

e)Notices and fees

f)Frustration

g)Arbitration procedure etc

3.8: Contract documents

        Following are the contract documents:-

a)Title page – Name of the work

b)Index page – Contents of the argument

c)Tender notice

d)Tender form

e)BOQ and schedule of quantity

f)Schedule of issue of materials

g)General specifications

h)Detailed specifications

i)Drawings

j)Condition of contract

k)Special conditions etc

3.9: Construction supervision

          Any supervisor or overseer deputed to the site should thoroughly supervise the work of a contractor. The best interest of the contractor will be always to keep the cost of construction as low as possible. A contractor guided by his best interest may try to cheat the owner by doing inferior work i.e. using inferior materials not following the instructions, without following time sequence etc. Thus, all the works shall be done in the presence of overseer, only in the confidence of an overseer further works shall be done.

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