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Village Roads

A village is such a perfect place where you can find harmony with nature with its pleasing scenario, fresh air, hospitable people and simple quiet life. Basically, it’s a suitable place to live if you are in search of a certain spiritual serenity and want to enjoy the pleasure of meaningful time among the most magnificent rural landscapes.

Most of the houses in the village are stone or mud-built, some are made of wood and bamboo with a thatched roof, yet naturally beautiful. People living in villages have their own principle of “Plain Living and High Thinking”. They like to have a simple, happy and satisfied life. National customs, social norms and values, and unique traditions are equally preserved by the villagers. There you can find closeness between the people, mainly between elder and younger generations since the village children are more likely to spend their due time with their elderly family members. There is a mutual understanding between the neighbours. 

Besides all these, there are some drawbacks of the village and its road condition;

  •  Many villages are found to be underdeveloped rural areas where there is a lack of proper health, education, transportation, communication facilities and lack of many other modern means of developmental infrastructures.
  •  Villages in high altitudes are made narrow due to which it becomes so difficult to carry out transportation facility in such places. 
  • Village roads are paved, dusty with stabilized base. They are designated just for light vehicles rather than for heavy ones. Roads seem to be dangerous because the roads are narrower, slippery, ditches in the roads due to this there may be a chance of landslide, soil erosion and so on. There is the possibility of various potential hazards that every driver should be aware while driving down a rural road mainly at nights.
  • There is a high chance of accidents due to roughness of roads, lack of traffic engineering tools including signs, traffic lights, traffic police and other traffic rules. No doubt that the injured casualties of accidents have to lose their life as there is a lack of proper health facilities and hospitals around rural areas. 
  • Village roads have a gravel base, thus they often get deteriorated rapidly mostly during the wet rainy season, resulting in the disruption of transportation services and access to health centres and markets for goods.

Here are some effective ways to improve the condition and construction of roads;

  • Government and the road transportation authority should implement crucial road safety rules, laws, codes and conducts.
  • Roads are needed to be monitored by the concerned authority.
  • There should be proper availability of modern traffic engineering tools.
  • There needs to be a quick response in time for the proper management of roads.
  • Health facilities and health centres for minor accidental injuries that may occur in roads should be provided.
  • Mass awareness among people is also another essential way to reduce traffic road accidents.
  • Various afforestation and plantation programs should be conducted nearby road areas so that it could prevent from landslide and soil erosion problem.
  • Road widening can improve traffic safety and it’s the capability to withstand in all weather conditions.
  • Roads should be constructed properly with simple design and high error margin techniques.
  • There should be the establishment of road boards in order to manage road maintenance.
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Duty in irrigation

The duty of water is the relationship between the volume of water and the area of land it matures. It may be defined as the area of land (in hectares) irrigated for full growth of given crop by a supply of 1 m3lsec of water continuously during the entire base period of the crop. Duty of water( duty in irrigation) is generally expressed in hectare cumecs and is denoted by letter D `mathematically,


Where, D=Duty in hectare cumec

A=Area in hectares

Q=Discharge in m3/s

Duty can also be expressed as D=8.44 B/Δ  

Duty in irrigation

Types of duty in Irrigation: 

 Duty can be classified as:

1.Flow duty

 In direct irrigation, duty is always expressed in hectare cumec, it is then called flow duty.

2. Quantity duty or storage duty

 In storage irrigation, duty may sometimes be expressed in hectares /million cubic meters of water available in a reservoir. It means that every million cubic meter of water available to the reservoir will mature so many hectares of a particular crop. Hence the irrigating capacity of the reservoir is directly known, When duty is expressed in this manner, then it is called quantity duty. 

2. Factors affecting the duty of water in Irrigation

Duty of irrigation water depends upon the subsequent factor:

1. Type of crop

 The water demand for numerous crops is completely different than the duty varies from crop to crop. The duty is going to be less for a crop requiring additional water and the other way around.

2. Climate & Season 

The duty varies from season to season and also time to time in the same season. Since duty also includes the water lost in evaporation and percolation. Losses due to evaporation and percolation vary with climatic condition. The values of duties which are generally expressed are their average values considered in the entire crop period. 

3. Useful rainfall

More the helpful precipitation less is the need for irrigation water, and hence additional is the duty of irrigation water.

4. Soil type 

The duty of irrigation water will be less for permeable soil and vice versa.

In coarse-grained soil; percolation is high, so less duty. In fined grained soil;  percolation is less, so high duty. So the duty of clayey soil is more than the duty of sandy soil.

5. Method of ploughing 

Proper ploughing of land reduces the number of watering & increases duty. But for faulty cultivation & improper ploughing, duty is decreased. 

6. Method of irrigation 

The duty of water is high just in case of the perennial irrigation system as a compared inundation irrigation system.

7. The topography of agricultural land

 If the agricultural land is uneven, the water requirement will be more and hence duty will below. As the ground slope will increase, the duty decreases as a result of there’s wastage of water.

8. Base period

 If the base period is longer, the water requirement will be more, duty will be low and vice versa.

9. Skill of cultivation 

A skilled & properly trained cultivator can make judicious use of water and therefore duty will be high.

 Importance of duty

 The Knowledge of duty helps engineers in designing efficient canal irrigation system. Knowing the duties of different crops and their areas, the discharge required for designing the irrigation canal can be estimated.

 Methods for improving duty/ Measures for improving duty


1. Ploughing, the land to proper depth increases the moisture-retaining capacity of the soil. Hence duty gets improved.

2. Reduction in percolation loss. The canal should be lined to reduce percolation losses. 

3. Land used for cultivation should be levelled as far as possible. 

4. Manure fertilizers should be added to increase the water-holding capacity of the soil. 

5. Rotation of crops will ensure increased crop yield with minimum use of water. 

6. Method of irrigation should be efficient. 

7. The cultivators should be trained & skilful. 

8. The land should be regularly cultivated.

9. Reduction of transmission losses Canal should be taken close to the irrigable land to minimize transmission losses.

For the relationship between delta, duty and base period: Click here

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Classification of crops

There are many types of crops. They are classified into agricultural and seasonal. Classification of crops is given by:

AAgricultural classification of Crops

a) Field crops: Wheat, Rice, Maize, Barley etc.

b) Plantation Crops: Tea, Coffee, Coconut etc.

c) Commercial crops: Oilseed, Cotton, Sugarcane, Groundnut etc.

d) Horticulture: Fruits and vegetables.

e) Forage crops and grass: Fodder.

f) Miscellaneous crop: Silk, Medicinal crops etc.

  Classification of crops

B. Classification of Crops based on crop season:

A. Rabi crops:

 Rabi season starts from October and ends on 31st March: The crops which are sown in the winter season are called Rabi crops. So they are also called winter crops. Rabi crops are Wheat, Bar1evGran, Linseed, Mustard, Potatoes etc.

B. Kharif crops: 

Kharif season starts from ist April to 30th September. The crops which are sown in summer season i.e. 1st April to 30th September are called Kharif crops. They are also called summer crops. Kharif crops are Rice, Maize, Cotton, Tobacco. Ground Nut, Millet etc 

C. Perennial crops:

The crops that are sown in Summer & winter seasons, they are called perennial crops. eg, Sugarcane.

2.3 Some terminologies

 • Arid region:

 The region where irrigation is must for agriculture is called arid region.

 • Semi-arid region: 

The region where inferior crops can be grown without irrigation is called semi-arid region.

• Crop Period:  

The time period from the instant of sowing of crops to the instant of harvesting is called crop period. It is also called a growing period. 

Crop period = Harvesting date-Sowing date. 

2.4 Determination of the Total Growing Period

The total growing period (in days) is the period from sowing or transplanting to the last day of the harvest. It is principally passionate about the sort of crop and also the selection of the climate & the planting date.
As the growing amount heavily depends on native circumstances and many other factors. In general, it is often assumed that the growing amount for a definite crop is longer once the climate is cool and shorter once the climate is heating.


Crop             Total growing        Crop             Total growing period (days)

                       period (days)      

Banana           300-3 65             Millet                   105-140

Cabbage        120-140              Pepper                120-210 

Carrot              100-150               Potato                105-145

Citrus               240-365               Radish                 35-45 

Cotton             180-195                 Rice                  90-150 

Cucumber      105-130              Sorghum            170-130 

Determination of the Growth Stages:

 Once the entire growing amount is thought, the period (in days) of the varied growth stages needs to be determined. the entire growing amount is split into four growth stages.

1. The initial stage:

 This is the period from sowing or transplanting until the crop covers about 10% of the ground. 

2. The crop development stage:

This period starts at the end of the initial stage and lasts until the full ground cover has been reached (ground cover 70-80%); it does not necessarily mean that the crop is at its maximum height. 

3. The midseason stage:

 This period starts at the tip of the crop development stage and lasts until maturity; it includes flowering and grain-setting.

4. The late-season stage:

 This period starts at the end of the midseason stage and lasts until the last day of the harvest; it includes ripening.

Source of water for irrigation: Click  here

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 Source of water for irrigation

As we know every water is not suitable for human beings in the same way every water is not suitable for plant life. Water which contains impurities and is injurious to plant growth is not satisfactory for irrigation. Selection of a source of water for irrigation depends upon the following factors: 

irrigation- source of water for irrigation

a) Quantity needs

b) Quality factors

c) Location

d) Conflict and competition for water

 Source of water for irrigation

a) Quantity needs:

The source selected for irrigation should have adequate quantity of water to fulfil the water requirements of the command area. If water is not available in adequate quantity, there will not be desirable yield of the crops in one hand and conflict between farmers in another hand.

 b) Quality factors:

 The concentration and composition of dissolved constituents in water determines the quality of irrigation use. The various impurities which make the water unfit for irrigation are as follows:

 i) Sediment concentration in water

ii) The total concentration of soluble salts

iii) Potentially toxic elements 

iv) Bacterial contamination

  i) Sediment concentration in water:

The result of sediment gift within the irrigation water depends upon the sort of irrigated land. When the sediment from water is deposited on sandy soil the fertility is improved but if the sediment has been derived from the eroded areas it may reduce the fertility or decrease the soil permeability. Sedimented water creates troubles in irrigation canals by causing canal siltation and by increasing maintenance costs.

ii) The total concentration of soluble salts:

 Salts of calcium, magnesium sodium and potassium present in irrigation water may cause injurious to plants. When these salts are present in the excessive amount they reduce the osmotic activities of plants and may cause injury to plant growth.

At the beginning of irrigation with undesirable water, no harm may be evident but with the passage of time, the salt concentration in the soil will reach a harmful level.

 iii) Potentially toxic elements :

A large variety of components like element, Selenium etc.may be toxic to plants. Traces of Boron are essential to plant growth but its concentration above 0.3 ppm may prove toxic to certain plants. Selenium even in low concentration is toxicant and should be avoided. Boron is essential to present in various soaps. Therefore soap water should be used with great care in irrigation.

 iv) Bacterial contamination:

Water contaminated with bacterias may be useful or harmful to plants according to the nature of bacteria’s towards plants.

 c). Location of source: 

Source of irrigation canal should be as near as possible to the command area. Nearer the source lesser the losses, Construction cost and maintenance cost.

d). Conflict:

Source of water selected should be free from conflict or dispute or the dispute should be managed. 


For Command Area and types: Click here