Village Roads

A village is such a perfect place where you can find harmony with nature with its pleasing scenario, fresh air, hospitable people and simple quiet life. Basically, it’s a suitable place to live if you are in search of a certain spiritual serenity and want to enjoy the pleasure of meaningful time among the most magnificent rural landscapes.

Most of the houses in the village are stone or mud-built, some are made of wood and bamboo with a thatched roof, yet naturally beautiful. People living in villages have their own principle of “Plain Living and High Thinking”. They like to have a simple, happy and satisfied life. National customs, social norms and values, and unique traditions are equally preserved by the villagers. There you can find closeness between the people, mainly between elder and younger generations since the village children are more likely to spend their due time with their elderly family members. There is a mutual understanding between the neighbours. 

Besides all these, there are some drawbacks of the village and its road condition;

  •  Many villages are found to be underdeveloped rural areas where there is a lack of proper health, education, transportation, communication facilities and lack of many other modern means of developmental infrastructures.
  •  Villages in high altitudes are made narrow due to which it becomes so difficult to carry out transportation facility in such places. 
  • Village roads are paved, dusty with stabilized base. They are designated just for light vehicles rather than for heavy ones. Roads seem to be dangerous because the roads are narrower, slippery, ditches in the roads due to this there may be a chance of landslide, soil erosion and so on. There is the possibility of various potential hazards that every driver should be aware while driving down a rural road mainly at nights.
  • There is a high chance of accidents due to roughness of roads, lack of traffic engineering tools including signs, traffic lights, traffic police and other traffic rules. No doubt that the injured casualties of accidents have to lose their life as there is a lack of proper health facilities and hospitals around rural areas. 
  • Village roads have a gravel base, thus they often get deteriorated rapidly mostly during the wet rainy season, resulting in the disruption of transportation services and access to health centres and markets for goods.

Here are some effective ways to improve the condition and construction of roads;

  • Government and the road transportation authority should implement crucial road safety rules, laws, codes and conducts.
  • Roads are needed to be monitored by the concerned authority.
  • There should be proper availability of modern traffic engineering tools.
  • There needs to be a quick response in time for the proper management of roads.
  • Health facilities and health centres for minor accidental injuries that may occur in roads should be provided.
  • Mass awareness among people is also another essential way to reduce traffic road accidents.
  • Various afforestation and plantation programs should be conducted nearby road areas so that it could prevent from landslide and soil erosion problem.
  • Road widening can improve traffic safety and it’s the capability to withstand in all weather conditions.
  • Roads should be constructed properly with simple design and high error margin techniques.
  • There should be the establishment of road boards in order to manage road maintenance.

Classification of crops

There are many types of crops. They are classified into agricultural and seasonal. Classification of crops is given by:

AAgricultural classification of Crops

a) Field crops: Wheat, Rice, Maize, Barley etc.

b) Plantation Crops: Tea, Coffee, Coconut etc.

c) Commercial crops: Oilseed, Cotton, Sugarcane, Groundnut etc.

d) Horticulture: Fruits and vegetables.

e) Forage crops and grass: Fodder.

f) Miscellaneous crop: Silk, Medicinal crops etc.

  Classification of crops

B. Classification of Crops based on crop season:

A. Rabi crops:

 Rabi season starts from October and ends on 31st March: The crops which are sown in the winter season are called Rabi crops. So they are also called winter crops. Rabi crops are Wheat, Bar1evGran, Linseed, Mustard, Potatoes etc.

B. Kharif crops: 

Kharif season starts from ist April to 30th September. The crops which are sown in summer season i.e. 1st April to 30th September are called Kharif crops. They are also called summer crops. Kharif crops are Rice, Maize, Cotton, Tobacco. Ground Nut, Millet etc 

C. Perennial crops:

The crops that are sown in Summer & winter seasons, they are called perennial crops. eg, Sugarcane.

2.3 Some terminologies

 • Arid region:

 The region where irrigation is must for agriculture is called arid region.

 • Semi-arid region: 

The region where inferior crops can be grown without irrigation is called semi-arid region.

• Crop Period:  

The time period from the instant of sowing of crops to the instant of harvesting is called crop period. It is also called a growing period. 

Crop period = Harvesting date-Sowing date. 

2.4 Determination of the Total Growing Period

The total growing period (in days) is the period from sowing or transplanting to the last day of the harvest. It is principally passionate about the sort of crop and also the selection of the climate & the planting date.
As the growing amount heavily depends on native circumstances and many other factors. In general, it is often assumed that the growing amount for a definite crop is longer once the climate is cool and shorter once the climate is heating.


Crop             Total growing        Crop             Total growing period (days)

                       period (days)      

Banana           300-3 65             Millet                   105-140

Cabbage        120-140              Pepper                120-210 

Carrot              100-150               Potato                105-145

Citrus               240-365               Radish                 35-45 

Cotton             180-195                 Rice                  90-150 

Cucumber      105-130              Sorghum            170-130 

Determination of the Growth Stages:

 Once the entire growing amount is thought, the period (in days) of the varied growth stages needs to be determined. the entire growing amount is split into four growth stages.

1. The initial stage:

 This is the period from sowing or transplanting until the crop covers about 10% of the ground. 

2. The crop development stage:

This period starts at the end of the initial stage and lasts until the full ground cover has been reached (ground cover 70-80%); it does not necessarily mean that the crop is at its maximum height. 

3. The midseason stage:

 This period starts at the tip of the crop development stage and lasts until maturity; it includes flowering and grain-setting.

4. The late-season stage:

 This period starts at the end of the midseason stage and lasts until the last day of the harvest; it includes ripening.

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Three basic needs of agricultural production/ Irrigation area unit are soil, seed, and water.

In addition, fertilizers, insecticides, sunshine, appropriate atmospherical temperature and human labour also are required.

 In several parts of the world, the moisture available in the root-zone soil, either from rain or from underground waters, may not sufficient for the requirements f the plant life. 

Necessity of Irrigation

Rainfall varies considerably in place, time and in amount. The intensity of rainfall is very high during the monsoon season and less during other seasons. So crop cannot be raised successfully over the entire world without providing artificial irrigation of fields. The necessity of irrigation is as follows:

– Non-uniform rainfall throughout the year

– Less rainfall than a requirement

– Increasing food demand

– Controlled water supply


Advantages of irrigation

Every irrigation project is designed keeping in view of economics i.e. expenditure likely to incurred and benefit likely to occur. So any irrigation projection should be economically feasible. Generally, a project giving benefit at least about 8% interest of the capital outlay is implemented. Sometimes unproductive projects are also implemented in view of the general public benefits.

 The advantage of irrigation are as follows:

– Increase in food production

– Hydropower generation

– Elimination of mixed cropping

– Flood control

– Insurance against drought

– Inland navigation

– Forestation

– Facility of communication

– The prosperity of the nation

– Optimum benefits

– Domestic water supply

– Quality of life

– Employment


The disadvantages of irrigation are as follows:

– Creation of damp climate

–  Formation of water-logged area

– The necessity of crossing structure

– Creation of damp climate, marshy land and breeding place for mosquitoes causing the outbreak of diseases like malaria and dengue.

– Water pollution problem (seepage of nitrate applied in the soil as fertilizer may pollute underground water.)

– Raising the water table

– Loss of soil fertility

–  Soil erosion

– Loss of valuable land

 Source of water for irrigation

As we know every water is not suitable for human beings in the same way every water is not suitable for plant life. Water which contains impurities and is injurious to plant growth is not satisfactory for irrigation. Selection of sources of water depends upon the following factors: 


a) Quantity needs

b) Quality factors

c) Location

d) Conflict and competition for water

a) Quantity needs:

The source selected for irrigation should have adequate quantity of water to fulfil the water requirements of the command area. If water is not available in adequate quantity, there will not be desirable yield of the crops in one hand and conflict between farmers in another hand.

 b) Quality factors:

 The concentration and composition of dissolved constituents in water determines the quality of irrigation use. The various impurities which make the water unfit for irrigation are as follows:

 i) Sediment concentration in water

ii) The total concentration of soluble salts

iii) Potentially toxic elements 

iv) Bacterial contamination

  i) Sediment concentration in water:

The result of sediment gift within the irrigation water depends upon the sort of irrigated land. When the sediment from water is deposited on sandy soil the fertility is improved but if the sediment has been derived from the eroded areas it may reduce the fertility or decrease the soil permeability. Sedimented water creates troubles in irrigation canals by causing canal siltation and by increasing maintenance costs.

ii) The total concentration of soluble salts:

 Salts of calcium, magnesium sodium and potassium present in irrigation water may cause injurious to plants. When these salts are present in the excessive amount they reduce the osmotic activities of plants and may cause injury to plant growth.

At the beginning of irrigation with undesirable water, no harm may be evident but with the passage of time, the salt concentration in the soil will reach a harmful level.

 iii) Potentially toxic elements :

A large variety of components like element, Selenium etc.may be toxic to plants. Traces of Boron are essential to plant growth but its concentration above 0.3 ppm may prove toxic to certain plants. Selenium even in low concentration is toxicant and should be avoided. Boron is essential to present in various soaps. Therefore soap water should be used with great care in irrigation.

 iv) Bacterial contamination:

Water contaminated with bacterias may be useful or harmful to plants according to the nature of bacteria’s towards plants.

 c). Location of source: 

Source of irrigation canal should be as near as possible to the command area. Nearer the source lesser the losses, Construction cost and maintenance cost.

d). Conflict:

Source of water selected should be free from conflict or dispute or the dispute should be managed. 


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Command Area


The area over which canal irrigation water flows by gravity is known as the Command area. Following are the types of Command Area.

Command Area

Types of Command Area

1)  Gross Command Area:

Gross Command Area is the total area which can be economically irrigated from an irrigation scheme without considering the limitations of water is called Gross Command Area. It is denoted by GCA.

2) Culturable Command Area:

Culturable Command Area is the area in which crop is grown at a particular time or crop season. It is denoted by CCA.

CCA=GCA- Uncultuable area

Uncultivable areas such as excluded from GCA to obtain CCA. The culturable Command Area can be of two types. They are:

a) Culturable cultivable area:

It is the area within the culturable command area where cultivation is actually done at present.

b) Culturable uncultivable area:

  It is the area within the culturable command area where the cultivation is possible but not done at present.

3) Net Command Area:

It is the culturable Command Area obtained after deduction of canal networks, supply ditches etc constructed in the field. It is denoted by NCA.

NCA=CCA- the area occupied by canals, canals network and ditches.

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Building Substructure

Building substructure is the lower part of a structural system which is constructed beneath the ground level so, hidden from view. It transfers loads of the structural system i.e building, bridge, etc. to the ground which has the load-bearing capacity. It supports and anchors the superstructure in a safe manner. It should be designed with the proper technique because it assures the stability of superstructure too. Example:- the multistory structure has basement parking which is kind of substructure. 

Components of Building Substructure

Building Substructure has the following two components :


2.Plinth Beam


The structure just below the ground level with some extent depth which is directly contacted with superstructure is known as “Foundation”.It transfers dead loads, live loads and all other loads which are exerting on it to the soil with load-bearing capacity. As stability of building depends upon the strength of the foundation, it should be made more reliable and strong.

Earthquake proof buildings- construction management-Building Substructure

                 Types of Foundation

A.Shallow Foundation

It is the type of Foundation which is placed near the earth’s surface that transfers the loads to the soil at shallow depth. It is categorized into four types. They are explained below:-

a.Strip foundation(Strip Footings)

It is the foundation that supports the linear structure such as walls, columns which are constructed above it from the centre. It depends on the soil load-bearing capacity. The size and position of this Foundation depends on the width of linear structures.

b.Raft Foundation 

This is the kinda Foundation made up of a large concrete slab that can support the loads exerted by walls, columns constructed over it. It is spread all over under the building to reduce contact stress or pressure.

c.Isolated Footings

It is constructed beneath the column to distribute the concentrated loads safely to bed soil. It supports only for single columns.

d.Combined Footings

This kind of footings is built for supporting two or more columns in a straight line where soil bearing capacity is least that cause overlap between adjacent isolated footings.

Example:-Strap footings (cantilever) is the independent footings of two columns connected by beams.

B.Deep Foundation

This kinda Foundation is placed at great depth from surface level to transfer the load to the deep layers of soil beneath it. Such type of foundation can mainly be made out of steel, timber, reinforced concrete or pre-stressed concrete. 

For example; a good foundation which is made below the water level mostly for bridges.

Types of Deep Foundation

a.Pile Foundation 

A long cylindrical foundation which is analogous to a pole is said to be pile foundation. Such kind of foundation can be made of strong materials such as concrete, steel, timber, etc. so that it hardens the strata and transfers the heavy loads from superstructure below the ground level. It increases the effective size of a foundation and the resisting loads which are horizontally kept since, pile foundation is considered as more compact, less compressible and stiffer soil or rock at the depth.

b.Pier Foundation

Most of the foundations are depending on their instalment methods. Pier foundation is the dissolved form of pile foundation. Its caissons are the watertight structures which are made up of steel, wood or reinforced concrete built above the ground level and the sunken into the ground. This foundation can be constructed for the collection of a large number of columns, for repairing the ships and for the construction of the concrete dam as well. 

There are drilled shafts, those are the caissons or bored piles. They support structure with large axial lateral loads simply by excavating the cylindrical shafts into the ground just to fill them all into the concrete.

2.Plinth beam

This is a reinforced concrete beam which is in framed and structured form constructed between the wall and its the foundation. When the foundation suffers from the settlement, it is provided in such a way to prevent the extension or the propagation of cracks from its foundation into the wall above. Plinth beam is generally constructed in such areas which are prone to earthquake. It is effective to be used as it reduces the length of columns by reducing their slenderness, constructing as plinth line at the base of a column, statue, pedestal or the pier. Here’s something that needs to be noted, the strength of this plinth beam shouldn’t be smaller than 20 MPa. And the minimum dimension of the plinth beam is about 20 cm depth having with the matching width of the foundation. In order to prevent steel base from aggressive elements, the formwork for it has to be compacted sufficiently.

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Construction management

It is very necessary for construction management to control the money flow and to construct any structure under budget. There are three types of construction management:

  1. Organization
  2. Site Management
  3. Contract Procedure

1)Organization in construction management

      Organization is defined as a group of people put together to get the things done in a systematic way. An organization can be seen as a set of roles or positions rather than the collection of people. The posts or roles are arranged in a hierarchy.

1.1: Need for organization

1)To arrange the right people in the right position at the right time.

2)Organization facilitates in meeting management objectives.

3)Coordination Action for the achievements of the goal.

4)To explain the responsibility of workers.

5)To prompt decision.

6)Ensures continuity of work eliminates idle time and avoids friction between the staffs.

Earthquake proof buildings- construction management

1.2: Types of Organization

          Depending upon the size of organization and the pattern of the duties and responsibilities allocated with the organizational structure, organization, mainly used in the construction industry, can be divided into the following categories:-

a)line or military organization

           The line organization, which is simple and the earliest one. It is also called the military organization. In this type of organization the authority flows directly from the head of the organization to the bottom step by step and the officials who are at the top make all the major decisions.

b)Line and staff organization

            The line organization fails to handle large and complicated construction works, because of its simplicity and also it lacks experts. In order to execute such large and complicated projects, the staffs of the line organization need to be advised by the specialists to solve the various operating problems.

c)Functional organization

             The line type organization is unable to provide expert (specialist) service. This lacking of line organization has been fulfilled by the line and staff organization. But the “staffs” in the line and staff organization may remain ineffective due to lack of authority. A functional organization is the improved one among them. It is introduced by F.W. Taylor.

1.3: Responsibilities of civil overseer in construction management

            We know, overseers are playing the role of the supervisor in construction works. Overseers act as a bridge between engineers and labours. As a supervisor (or overseer) bears certain responsibilities which are listed below:-

a)To understand the duties and responsibilities of his own position.

b)To plan the execution of the work.

c)To divide the work among the worker and to direct and assets them in doing it.

d)To improve work methods and procedures.

e)To teach the subordinates.

Earthquake proof buildings- construction management

1.4: Relation between the owner, contractor and engineer

           Owner, contractor and engineer are the three parties involved in construction work. Owner contracts the work, contractors execute the work and the engineer by the owner provides advice and prepare all the necessary drawings, estimates, specification required and also helps in contracting procedures.

            Relations among owner, contractor and engineer depend on the nature of the work. They are supposed to perform. The owner gets the assurance of the work progress and the quality of the engineer. Contractors always try to satisfy the engineer, since he is the legal representative of the owner holding powerful authority. Thus, a relation of supervisory nature is to be maintained there by the engineer. He has to act as a supervisor.

2)Site Management in construction management

2.1: Preparation of site plan 

         Before starting any construction project, preparation of the site is essential. Preparation of site includes clearance of project area, construction of access road, labour quarter, storeroom, technical office, administrative office etc.

Construction management

2.2: Organizing labour

         It is the main element that plays a vital role to complete any construction work. so the proper management of labours before starting the project is most important.

2.3: Measures to improve labour efficiency

           All organized effort is done to achieve goals, in our purpose the goal is to execute any construction works. Though the goal of construction is primary, the person involved in the construction also has their own need and goals which are important to them. Several models have been developed in order to understand the complexity of people. However, the efficiency of labour depends upon the skill, knowledge, experience as well as willingness to work. It also depends on:- 


b)Working condition of the site

c)Working hours

d)Rewards and punishment system

e)Employers behaviour

f)Tools and equipment introduced

g)The job of desired nature

2.4: Accident prevention

           The accident is an event that happens all of a sudden, unexpectedly e.g. hitting by falling from a height, collapse of deep foundation sites etc.

            Safety is the most important thing to be considered in the construction business. Unsafe working conditions not only cause minor accident or injuries but it may also cause the death of workers involved in construction. No compensation can provide a life for a dead person. The main causes of accidents may be broadly divided into:-

a)Physical causes

b)Physiological cause and

c)Psychological causes

       Following are the measures to prevent the accident:-

a)Protective hard hat (helmet)

b)Protective footwear

c)Protective hearing device


e)Gloves, masks and goggles

f)Signals etc


3)Contract Procedure in construction management

3.1: Contracts

        The contract is defined as an argument enforceable by law. It is also defined as the agreement between two or more than two parties to do or not to do any business. It is now obvious that the contract involves a proposal from one party and an acceptance of the same by the other.

3.2: Departmental works and day works

         If the work is executed directly by the department or owner, all the required men, materials, the department manages tools and equipment etc. In short, the department shall handle all the administration and management for the successful completion of works. This procedure of executing construction work is followed if:-

a)The work is of regular maintenance and repair type.

b)The work is of smaller size and the expenses are minimum.

c)Government rules and regulations permit.

d)The work is of special nature.

e)This is of exceptional type.

Construction management

     Day work is used to denote a procedure of costing an item work on the basis of actual labourers and materials required. Certain item work on the basis of actual labourers and materials required. Certain item of work that cannot be measured as a design in the plasterwork, the front architectural finish of a building, work underwater etc. are valued and paid by “day work”. The “day work” prices usually include material, labour, transport, contractors profit and overhead charges, tools and plants etc.

3.3: Types of contract

           Construction work can be executed through the following contract procedures:-

a)Lump-sum contract

b)Item rate contract

c)Cost-plus contract 

d)Target contract

e)All in contract

f)Labour contract

g)Material contract

3.4: Tender and tender notices

            Usually, the construction of large and complicated projects, where the cost of construction will be high is not subjected to be executed by the department, directly. Government’s rule and regulation will limit the execution of such type of work by department. Execution of such type of work by contracting and for this tenders are called.

             Tender is a written presented before the owner or department in order to perform the specified works within a specified time under the agreed obligations.

            Tender notice is a means of expression, through which contractors may know where they have to bid a tender. Tender notice shall be published in such a way that all the concerning parties get the information in time. Thus, such tender notice shall be published in widely read newspapers or through other media from where the notification reaches the concerned parties. A tender notice shall contain the following information:-

a)Date, time and place of tender

b)Name of the authorities inviting tender

c)Nature of work and its location

d)Time of completion

e)Validity of tender

f)Amount of earnest and security money

g)Cost of the complete set of tender forms and conditions.

h)Estimated cost etc

3.5: Earnest money and security money

          Earnest money provides a guarantee of the party’s willingness to carrying out the work if he is awarded. This money is deposited while bidding a tender. 2.5% of the estimated amount or bidding amount (normally bidding amount) is demanded as earnest money. The earnest money deposited will be returned to the unsuccessful bidders. In the case of the successful bidder, the earnest 2.5% is turned to the security deposit with the addition of other 2.5%.

       On the acceptance of the tender, the contractor should deposit 5% of the tendered amount as security money with the department which is inclusive of the earnest money already deposited. It is also known as a security deposit. The amount is kept as a check so that the contractor fulfils all the terms and conditions of the contract and carries out the work satisfactorily according to the maintain progress and specifications and completes the work in time.

3.6: Preparation before inviting tender and agreement

             In order to execute construction work through contracting, we need to invite tenders from the eligible parties. Before inviting tender following steps are to be followed:-

1)Project formulation

2)Detail design and const estimation

3)Approval of cost estimation

4)Tender documentation

5)Tender invitation


        The agreement is a consensus between the successful bidder and the owner and it has a legal meaning. Agreement between the two parties should have the same spirit and understood in the same way.

3.7: Conditions of contract

            Construction involves owner, contractor and consultants. Thus in the agreement, there must be clauses or conditions which shall define the duties and responsibilities of the owner, contractor and consultant.

           Condition of the contract should be compared with the comparable standard form. The classes should not be ambiguous and incomplete. Here primary clauses of contract are given form the aspects of civil engineering contract procedure:-

a)Duties and power of site representative.

b)Definition of contract documents

c)Watching and lighting


e)Notices and fees


g)Arbitration procedure etc

3.8: Contract documents

        Following are the contract documents:-

a)Title page – Name of the work

b)Index page – Contents of the argument

c)Tender notice

d)Tender form

e)BOQ and schedule of quantity

f)Schedule of issue of materials

g)General specifications

h)Detailed specifications


j)Condition of contract

k)Special conditions etc

3.9: Construction supervision

          Any supervisor or overseer deputed to the site should thoroughly supervise the work of a contractor. The best interest of the contractor will be always to keep the cost of construction as low as possible. A contractor guided by his best interest may try to cheat the owner by doing inferior work i.e. using inferior materials not following the instructions, without following time sequence etc. Thus, all the works shall be done in the presence of overseer, only in the confidence of an overseer further works shall be done.

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Causes of landslide

The phenomena of sliding of weak and unstable soil, rocks and other materials from a certain height to the downside due to the action of gravity and various factors or causes which we will discuss below are said to be “Landslide“.

Mainly, a landslide occurs in hilly and mountainous regions where there is a high chance of having weak and unstable soils, rocks and sands. There are many trigger causes of the landslide. There are two kinds of causes of the landslide which are the most responsible for frequent landslide; Natural causes and human causes.

effects of earthquake- causes of earthquake

Causes of landslide

1.Natural causes of Landslide

Every existing in the surrounding is associated with nature. Everything present is gifted by nature and we are users of it and it’s nature greatness. But sometimes due to imbalance in nature or fluctuation in the operation of the ecosystem, there is great effect resulted in disasters known as natural disasters. For instance, landslide, soil erosion, flood, earthquake, .etc.

Among this Landslide is also caused by various natural causes. Some are explained below;-

A.Physical causes



There is a variation in the land structure somewhere there is plain land  whereas at someplace uneven, sloppy with different slope aspect and gradient and we  know that at sloppy area there is great chance of being weak and unstable land and at this place there is high pressure of water flow which causes devastating flood and finally resulted out as landslide too. Due to dip spacing under the roots of the tree from the surface,  there is the slow movement of bedding planes and along a line of weakness in a fault in a soil property cause landslide. And if the strength of large rocks is not good they rolled down and this process of rolling down of rocks with sliding it’s ways materials too is considered to be a landslide.

Tectonic Activity

Under the surface of the earth, there are many tectonic plates which are responsible to maintain the stability of earth’s surface thus we are capable of moving here and there and standing in one place. When these tectonic plates move unwisely the earth surface quakes which is said to be “Earthquake”. And the shaking of earth surface resulted out as various natural disasters among them landslide is one. Tectonic plates are above the molten liquid known as lava on the earth’s surface. So, Uneven movement of tectonic plates can cause the eruption of lava from certain area mainly from hills of rocks known as  “Volcanic Eruption. The volcanic eruption also can cause landslide which is more disastrous than other causes of the landslide.

Physical weathering

Due to variation in the geography of the earth, the weather differs from place to place. So, in some regions, there is cold, moderate, hot, etc. and weather causes disturbances in the ecosystem of the earth and leads to many kinds of problem like weakness in the quality of soil, rocks, roots of trees become weak to hold soil and landslide occur. And also cause soil erosion and in mountainous regions, there is snow, glaciers whose effect as thawing, freeze-thaw, etc. resulted in landslide causes great loss of property and lives.


Hydrogeological  Factors

At a dense forest area, there are great possibilities of heavy rainfall. And Heavy rainfall is a frequent trigger cause of the landslide. Hydrogeological Factors which can cause landslide are Geomorphology, soil types, and elevation. And slow snowmelt can cause avalanches flood. 

B.Morphological causes

On the sloppy land, there is a high possibility of glacier erosion, soil erosion, wave erosion( erosion due to movement of waves of seismic waves), fluvial erosion(erosion with the flow of water of streams), etc. And the change in vegetation can bring change in climate change and finally landslide.

C.Geo logical causes


Permeability contrasts

Depending upon the porosity of rock(cracks or cavities of the rocks ) there is a measure to identify the easiness of flow of fluid through porous rocks. And this measure is known as Permeability contrasts. If we are unable to find out porous point in rock there is high of landslide with forceful flood and rocks sliding down.

2.Human Causes of Landslide

Due to unwise use of resources available in nature by human various problems are causing with very impact on nature and living beings. Some of the Human causes responsible for a landslide are described below:-

  • Deforestation:
    causes of earthquake
    Chopping down of plants is termed as deforestation. With the development, the rate of deforestation is also increasing day by day which is the result of the need for the high population of users. Human chopped down plants for their benefits like for furniture, foods, as raw materials for the operation of industries and factories, etc. They are destroying forest but they are messing up the various natural disasters. They can use forest but also they heal the loss of greenery by planting more plants than they chopped down. We all know that plants’ roots are responsible to hold soil and not to let it slide down. With an increase in deforestation probability of landslide increases at a high rate.
  • Excavation: The activity of using tools, equipment, or explosives to move some materials, rocks, soil, and for exploration, environmental restoration, mining and constructions is called excavation. During excavation surface of the earth’s shake and the area where this is done becomes weak and can result out as landslide at that place.                                                                                                                                      
  • Improper water management in the water resources like we can manage water resources like rivers, streams, etc. from over water flowing and as continuous water flow can weaken the soil and rocks. And the area with weak and unstable soil and rocks have a high chance of landslide.                                                       
  • Improper use of land for various constructions like roads, buildings, dams, bridges, and many more by destroying nature. Excessive use of land can cause urbanization and it has bad impact. For construction purpose various heavy equipment are used as rollers, crane, land piercing machines for drilling, etc. which causes vibration and surface shake and landslide occurs.                                                                                                                                                        
  • For quarrying(the process of extracting materials, from ground or crushing rocks by blast furnace,etc. ) and Mining (the process to extracting out precious and valuable substances from ground like gold, diamond, etc.) various tools are used like sheared materials, drilling  materials, etc. creates temporary  quakes in the surface and causes landslide.                                                                                    

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Effects of landslide

The term ‘landslide ‘ is self-defined word i.e slide of land. The sliding down of weak and unstable surface materials (soil, sand, rocks,etc.) of the earth due to various causes like earthquake, heavy rain, gravity, etc is known as Landslide.

Landslide mostly occurs in sloppy land. And Landslide has disastrous effects.

On the basis of different kinds of landslide like sliding of rocks and soil, high pressure flowing water from streams, river and waterfalls, toppling, creeping, etc. there are various kinds of effects like property damage, loss of life of living beings, etc. It also has an adverse effect on the variety of resources available in nature. Landslide results in an imbalance in the ecosystem.

The probability of person travelling through road media has 1 in 5000 probability of dying but person travelling air medium has 1 in 1000000 probability of dying. About 20-30% of people who die in the road accident is due to landslide and rockfall. Rockfall is also a type of landslide. 

effects of earthquake- effects of landslide

Some of the effects of Landslide 

Landslide effect can be seen as a short and long period of time. So, here short term and long term effects of landslide are described below with some of the examples:-

1.Short-term effects of the landslide

Heavy loss of property and lives:-

Various precious properties made by humans like cultural monuments, their houses or buildings, dams, roadways and bridges, and many more. loss of human lives, loss of wildlife, .etc.

Change in weather;-

Landslide brings a drastic change in weather due to imbalance in the ecosystem in nature. And drastic change in weather can arise various problems like difficulty in adaptation, various diseases, etc.

Difficulty in roadways of affected areas:-

Transportation will be difficult for some days due to the blockage of the road to go from one place to another. This may cause great economic loss, one may have to face death due to block of the way to the hospital.


Landslide may cause the death of humans and wild lives and improper management of their dead bodies lead to decay which causes water pollution, air pollution, land pollution, etc. that further cause various diseases.


Due to the decrease in the fertility of the soil, the productivity of foods also decreases that may lead to starvation. And due to the destruction of small plants wildlife also have to face this problem that may lead to their extinction.

2.Long-term effects of the landslide

Destruction of various construction areas:

A disastrous landslide can destruct dams, bridges, roadways, etc. which may take more time to reconstruct again.

Change in the topology of the affected area:-

Landslide may cause uneven structure which used to be plain before. Gathering of rocks may be piled up at one place brings change in topology.

Loss of lives:-

It is heard that many people died in the landslide and some get injured. It is also a long term effect. 

Additionally, a landslide can cause many accidents by blocking the road. Due to quick and devastating landslide vehicles running in the roads gets collapsed when from sloppy land big piles of rocks and soil fall. In this accident, people get injured badly or some have to loss their life and vehicles get totally damaged. For few days roads get blocked and it causes the problem in transportation as well as in communication.

It damages and destroys homes which were made up of various dreams and happiness. Thus, it does not just destroy the structure form of the house, it destructs family members their happiness. Victims of the landslide have to face poverty, starvation, health-related problems, and they become homeless, etc.

Due to landslide piles of rocks, mud, sands, disposals and other substances get collected in the water resources like streams, rivers, waterfalls,  etc. And due to this kind blockage in such water resources, there may cause disastrous flood which causes another additional destruction int he surrounding.

In contrast, landslide causes great loss of infrastructure.

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System of sanitation

System of sanitation in the hygienic means of maintaining proper health through the prevention of human contact with hazards of wastes by proper treatment and disposal of solid and liquid wastes.

Human use the resources of the earth and waste products are produced. These wastes are generated by domestic, commercial and industrial activities. If these wastes are not carefully disposed then there is water, soil and air pollution.

Sanitation has played a great role in maintaining a healthy life and environment for the living of human and other creatures on the earth.

System of Sanitation

1.Conservancy System

This system is also known as a dry system. In this system, various types of refuses are collected, conveyed and disposed off separately by different methods. Garbages and refuses of a town are collected in dustbins placed beside the road.

The collected garbages and refuses are conveyed by trucks to the point of disposal. All the non-combustible portion of the garbage like sand, silt, clay, etc are used for filling the low-level areas while the combustible portion of the sewage like dry leaves, waste paper, broken furniture, etc are burnt.

Human excreta are collected separately in privies or conservancy latrines and are carried by human agencies.

System of sanitation

Advantages of Conservancy System

  • It is cheaper in the initial cost.
  • Quality of sewage reaching at the treatment plant before disposal is low.

Disadvantages of Conservancy System


  • Burning of garbage, dry refuse, etc cause environmental degradation and pollution.
  • Decomposition of sewage causes unsanitary conditions on public health.

2. Water Carriage System

As the conservancy system produces sanitary as well as aesthetic problems. So, after a number of experiments; water carriage system is determined best.
In this system, water is the main system of disposal of the waste.

System of sanitation

Advantages of water carriage system

  • More hygienic method.
  • The unusual water supply is sufficient and no additional water is required in water carriage system.
  • This method does not depend on manual labour at any time except when the sewer gets blocked. 

Disadvantages of water carriage system

  • Not suitable for the area having less water
  • Maintenance cost is high.
  • High initial cost.