A floor is the bottom surface of a building room. Flooring is defined as the term for a permanent decorating of a floor, or for the work of establishing such a floor covering. A floor covering gives a smooth, clean, impenetrable and durable surface.

Types of Floors

Following are some of the major types of floors:

1. Mud Floor:

These floors are not constructed in commercial or professional buildings but only in residential buildings in backward areas where there is less development.

2. Brick floor:

The floor whose topping is constructed of brick. These are easy to build up and repair. but the surface obtaining from these is not smooth and is rough, hence, it fastly absorbs and retains moisture which may lead to occur dampness in the building.

3. Tile floor:

The floor whose topping is of tiles is called the tile floor. The tiles utilized may be of any wished quality, color, shape or thickness.

4. Flagstone floor:

The floors whose topping possess of stone slabs which are called flagstone floor. The stone slabs utilized in it may not be of a similar size but should not be more than 750 mm length and not less than 350 mm in width and 38 mm in thickness.

5. Cement concrete floor:

The floors whose topping is composed of cement concrete is called cement concrete floor or conglomerate floor. These floors consist of 25 mm to 50mm thick concrete layer set down over 100 mm thick base concrete and 100 cm thick clean sand over ground whose compaction and consolidation are prepared or done. These floors are mostly utilized in the present day.

Advantages of cement concrete flooring are as follows:

  • It is incapable of absorbing or mixing and thus it is very utilized for water stores.
  • It is durable and it is mostly utilized in kitchens, bathrooms, schools, hospitals, drawing rooms, etc.
  • Cement concrete flooring is smooth and agreeable in appearance.
  • It is economical and has the merits of costlier types of floors.
  • It contains good wearing properties and can be simply maintained clean.

6. Terrazzo floor:

 Terrazzo is a flooring material that is constructed traditionally by exposing marble chips on the surface of concrete and then waxing until smooth. Terrazzo is widely slippery and can cause the problem of falls, so it may not be used as a good flooring choice for family members.

7. PVC Flooring:

Dumaplast gives 100% water withstand PVC flooring that effortlessly resists extreme humidity. Finess is another to traditional laminate flooring. It is the perfect flooring for wet rooms such as bathrooms and kitchens.



The roof is defined as the topmost structure establishing the upper protecting of a building.

It helps to stop the rainwater coming inside the building and it also protects from direct sunlight radiation.

 Roof Types and Types of Roof:

 1.Flat Roofs: 

Flat roofs are widely easy to manufacture compared to other more modulated types of roofs. Flat roofs are used for their intelligibility and accessibility. A flat roof can resist all types of weight if you decide to walk on it. The only downside to this style of roof is that dirt, dust, leaves and other debris can collect on its surface more easily than other roof varieties.

2. Domed Roofs:

The Domed roof is polygonal having an inverted bowl shape. Domed roofs are beautiful in design but also very durable for the long term. The construction of domed roofs are various on the complexity of a project and can sum more curb plead to a home. They are generally added to cupolas and gazebos. 

3.Curved Roofs:

Curved roofs are similar to skillion roofs, only one difference between them is that planes are curved. The curve can be planned slight or with greater of an arch shape. Curved roofs construct a unique curb plead. A lower slope is great for high wind areas and a higher slope is more for allowing water run-off.

4. Skillion Roofs:

A Skillion roof is manufactured with a single slope. It is not so good because of as a hybrid between a triangular roof and a flat roof. In many cases, skillion roofs are utilized in a single section of a house. Rainwater tries to flow easily off of skillion roofs. 

5. Cross Gabled Roofs:

This types of the roof are similar to a triangle when watched from the home front yard. Though there are various varieties of gabled roofs, they are very beautiful and functional on homes that provide extra features, extra wings. This way, each section of the house can have its own cross-gabled roof for the ultimate aesthetic plead. 

6.Pyramid Roofs:

A pyramid roof is not commonly used roofs. It’s shaped in the cast of a pyramid. Pyramid roofs are generally fixed on small portions of a building. They are mostly fixed on garages, pool houses, and other small structures.

7.Mansard Roofs:

Mansard roofs are manufactured with four slopes. Each side of the building containing two slopes. The lowest slope is slopier than the upper one. In some cases, the upper slope cannot be visible from ground level. The roof’s unique French aesthetic allows extra living space at the top portion of the house.

Ready-mix concrete


Ready-mix concrete is concrete that is produced in a batch plant, according to a  put down engineered mix design.  Batch plants mix a precise amount of gravel, sand, water, and cement together by weight, permitting specialty concrete mixtures to be constructed and executed on construction sites.

Types of Ready Mixed Concrete

There are mainly three types of ready mix concrete (RMC):

  1. Transit mixed concrete
  2. Shrink mixed concrete
  3. Central mixed concrete

1. Transit mixed concrete

The transit mixed concrete is also known as dry-batched concrete because all the fundamental ingredients containing water are charged directly into the truck mixer. The mixer drum is rotated fast at charging speed during the fill-up of the material and after that, it again starts rotating at a normal disconcerting speed.

While being transported in the direction where it should be taken to its final destination, the drum is rotated at a slow or disconcert speed of 2 rpm, but after reaching to the destination or constructional site just before releasing the material, it is rotated at the maximum speed of 12 to 15 rpm for nearly 70 to 100 rotation to make sure homogeneous mixing.

Concrete mixed in transit

The drum speed is taken to the medium during the transit time, which is approximately 8 rpm for about 70 rotation. After 70 rotations, it is decelerated down to a disconcerting speed of 2 rpm till releasing the concrete.

Concrete mixed in the construction sites:

The drum is kept at a high-speed of 12 to 15 rpm for about 50 rotations in the construction field. The concrete is then disconcert decelerated during transit time.

2. Shrink mixed concrete

Shrink mixed concrete is half mixed in the plant mixer and then balance mixing is conducted in the truck-mounted drum mixer at the transit time. The amount of mixing in transit mixer based upon the expanse of mixing prepared in the central mixing plant. Tests should be done to develop the requirement of mixing the drum mixer.

3. Central-mixed concrete

Central-mixed concrete is also known as a central batching plant where the concrete is closely mixed before transferring into the truck mixer. The plant is also mentioned as wet-batch or pre-mix plants. While sending the concrete by using the truck mixer acts as deconcert only. Sometimes, when the workability requirement is less or the lead is less, distressing units or dump trucks can also be utilized.

Advantages of Ready Mixed Concrete:

The advantages of rmc are as follows:

 1. The more durable structure is provided, thus increasing the service life and conserve the life cycle costs.

2.  The small or large amount of concrete as per the specification is transferred timely at the site.

3. Petrol and diesel used are less thus noise and air pollution is decreased.

4. The concrete combined is utilized with high versatility. It is put by the following best concrete placing methods.

5. Cement saving will preserve energy and resources.



Geotextiles are penetrable textile materials utilized in touch with soil, rock, earth or any other geotechnical similar material as an important part of a construction project, structure. Geotextiles help in decreasing energy utilization and improving production in the construction field.

Types of Geotextile

Geotextiles are the manufacture of polymers such as polyester or polypropylene. They are divided into 3 categories on the basis of the way they are prepared :

1) Non-Woven Fabric Geotextiles

2) Knitted Geotextiles

3)Woven Geotextiles

 1). Non-Woven Fabric Geotextiles:

Non-woven geotextiles are produced from continuous filament yarn or short-staple fiber. The bonding of fibers is carried out by using thermal, chemical or mechanical techniques or a mixture of techniques. Geo-fibers acquired from mechanical interlocking or chemical or thermal bonding. Chemically bonded are thicker compared to usually in the order of 0.3 cm.

 2). Knitted Geotextiles:

Knitted geotextiles are produced by the process of interlocking a series of loops of yarn with each together. All of the knitted geosynthetics are manufactured by utilizing the knitting technique in joint with other various methods of geosynthetics produce, such as weaving.

Apart from these, there are three geotextiles, other geosynthetics utilized are geonets, geogrids, geo-cells, geomembranes, geocomposites, etc. each having their own different features and utilizes for special uses.

2). Woven Fabric Geotextile: 

Mostly found geotextiles are of the woven type and are formed by saving the techniques which are the same as weaving usual clothing textiles. This type has the feature appearance of two sets of parallel threads or yarns. The yarn moving along the length is called warp and the perpendicular one is called weft.

# Uses Of GeoTextile :

There are various uses of geotextile which are as follows:


The geotextiles are used to filter the soil and a small or medium size granular material to pass water is continuously more seen as a technically and commercially usable alternative to the conventional systems. Geotextiles work the filtering process for drainages in roads, in earth dams and in highways,  reservoirs and perform behind retaining walls, deep drainage trenches, and agriculture.


Geotextile is utilized for fertilizing soil control. For the enhancement of muddy ways and trails those utilized by light traffic, nonwoven fabrics are utilized and are bent by overlapping to contain the pipe or a mass of gravel, sand, silt, etc.

3.Road Work:

 Geotextiles are mostly utilized in the construction of the road. It binds the soil by adding tensile strength to road work. It is utilized as a rapid de-watering layer in the roadbed, the geotextiles require to save its permeability without removing its separating functions.

4.Railway Works:

The non-woven fabrics or the woven fabric method are utilized to differentiate the soil from the sub-soil without penetrating the groundwater moves where the ground is unbalanced. Surrounding one layer with fabric preserves the material from diverging off sideways due to shocks and vibrations from moving trains.

5. River, Canals and Coastal Works:

Geotextiles preserve river banks from erosion due to lapping. When geotextile utilized in conjunction with natural or artificial enrockments, they work as a filter.

# Function Of Geotextiles: 

1. Filtration

2. Separation

3. Reinforcement

4. Sealing